urinary Elimination

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urinary Elimination

Scientific Knowledge Base

Urinary elimination is the last step in the removal and elimination of excess water and by products of body metabolism. Adequate elimination depends on the coordinated function of _________________________, __________________, ___________________, and _________. The kidneys filter waste products of metabolism from the blood. The ­­­­­­­­­­­­______________________

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________________ from the kidneys to the bladder. The bladder holds urine until the volume in the bladder triggers a sensation of urge indicating the need to pass urine. Micturition occurs when the brain gives the bladder permission to empty, the bladder contracts, the urinary sphincter relaxes, and urine leaves the body through the urethra.

Kidney

The kidneys lie on either side of the vertebral column behind the peritoneum and against the deep muscles of the back. Normally the left kidney is higher than the right because of the anatomical position of the liver.

Nephrons, the functional unit of the kidneys, remove waste products from the blood and play a major role in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance. The normal range of urine production is ______________________________. Please convert to CC/day.  Erythropoietin, produced by the kidneys, stimulates red blood cell (RBC) production and maturation in bone marrow. The kidneys play a major role in blood pressure control via the renin-angiotensin system, release of aldosterone and prostacyclin. The kidneys also affect calcium and phosphate regulation by producing a substance that converts vitamin D into its active form.

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